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发表于 2020-12-13 11:10:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Astronomy and Quantum Physics/天体与量子物理学

This is the revised materials of Chapter 10 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science.(3rd Edition)” published in this website.
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-1 17:28:26 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1: The materials, relativity and its philosophy attributes/物质、相对论、与哲学属性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The attributes of materials and fourth dimension time-space
There are three first attributes of materials: mass, energy and magnetism;the other attributes such as movement or electric charges are secondary attributes caused by the first attributes. For example, A = 1/a, When parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, A is infinity, which is unmeasurable by us; in comparison, B = (1/a)/(2/a), when parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, B = 0.5, which is measurable by us due to the relative value between denominator and numerator. This is the basis understanding of relativity. In this article, the time-space observed by us is at three dimensions and is just a point on the axis in the fourth dimension space. However, there are the other time-spaces (or points), which can not be observed by us but are NOT independent of our time-space observed by us, along this fourth dimension axis of the universe. According to the relativity proposed by Einstein, once materials reach the velocity of photon, time goes back. However, this article does not agree with this viewpoint! This three dimension time-space, which is being observed by us, is just traveling along the fourth axis, the time axis in the universe. Once the three attributes are defined, then the absolute vacuum in the universe is defined as the condition ‘no mass, no energy, no life signals,’ which is infinite in the universe.  

'Three Laws of Newton' only suits for this three dimension time-space observed by us. However, the movement of materials in this time-space also meets the movement law (the fourth law) which is relative against other time-spaces on the time axis of the universe which can not be observed by us, that's why this time-space observed by us is expanding and all the stars are moving away from earth! (If sufficient data is available, equations of the fourth law can be deduced). The fourth movement law across different time-spaces would be determined by this magnetic nature, which explains the movement rhythm above more reasonably. It is noted that the the galaxy as a whole must have both negative and positive poles as well!

2. Energy, Mass and light velocity
Light speed is defined as the transmission velocity of photon in vacuum condition in the dictionary, which obviously is an ideal conception. However, there is another materials in the universe, called as magnetism which reaches infinite transmission velocity in the fourth dimension time-space and is the only materials that is able to transfer across different time-space in the fourth axis. Quantum photons are defined as the first element particles in this time-space. Quantum photons conduct cutting movement along the fourth dimension magnetism, creating light waves and other frequencies of electromagnetic wave. The other element particles (such as protons or electrons) in atoms are synthesized by the first element particles - quantum photons.   

In the metabolic process of soft organism, bio-energy is converted between different frequencies, thus creating new energy, which does not obey the energy conservation law (the previous energy conservation Law is based on the conclusion of the conversion of abiotic energy). In this article, the mass is absorbed by black holes in our time-space, but is increasingly injected into our time-space by white holes, increasing the total mass in our time-space, so that the expansion of our time-space is keeping balance. This process is defined as ‘metabolism’ in our time-space.  



























This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
Article 2. The anti-matter of symmetric three-dimensional spaces along the fourth dimension axis/第四维度轴上的对称三维空间与反物质原理

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.The principle of anti-matter.
The inter-atomic forces, except that the force of covalent bond is the Coulomb force between symmetric three-dimension spaces, the rest forces can be classified as the above mechanics. Covalent bond force is a Coulomb force between two symmetric three-dimensional spaces. In our three-dimension space, the protons electrons are positively charged and the electrons are negatively charged; the correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space along the fourth dimension axis is called antimatter, in which the protons are negatively charged and the electrons are positively charged.When discussing the motion law and force analysis of the micro-particles inside the atom, we often simplify it as the self rotation motion of the negative charge electron around the positive charge nucleus. From the force analysis of at a central point of electrons, one is the centrifugal force, and the other is the centripetal force generated by positive and negative charges, so as to achieve force balance; However, when the force analysis is conducted on nucleus, positive charge nucleus is subjected to the pulling force produced by Coulomb force correspondingly to the centripetal force, how to achieve the equilibrium of force analysis? This question is particularly evident in hydrogen atoms of mono-atomic form, such as stellar matter. For the further discussion of atomic physics, why electrons and protons in atoms (such as radioactive elements) cannot merge and neutralize due to the mutual attraction of Coulomb force in atoms after half-life of atomic decay? Clearly, the negative and positive charged particles move away from each other and leaving out of the atoms at high speed. These questions can only be resolved by presenting the anti-matter principles between two symmetric space of three-dimensional along the fourth dimension in this article. Next let’s discuss further for more complex cases. For example, there are two covalently bonded atoms (atom1 and atom2). There are electron 1 and proton 1 in atom 1 ; and electron 2 and proton 2 in atom 2, respectively. The negatively charged electron 1 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space; is also pulled and paired by positively charged proton 2 in atom 2 due to the covalent bond; the positively charged proton 2 is pulled and paired by the negatively charged electron 2 in atom 2; then the negatively charged electron 2 is pulled and paired by the positively charged electron in its correspondingly symmetric three-dimensional space. This series relationship also exists on electron 2 - proton 1 - electron 1. It's like a series of batteries, from positive to negative, positive to negative... Cyclic connection;

反物质原理。原子间作用力,除了共价键力是对称时空之间的库仑力性质,其余的都可以归为上述力学。共价键力是两个对称三维空间之间的库仑力作用。其中我们所在的三维空间质子带正电荷、电子带负电荷;则在第四维度轴上与它对应的对称三维空间中的质子带负电荷、电子带正电荷,即为反物质。在讨论原子内部粒子运动规律和受力分析时候,我们常常简化为负电荷电子围绕正电荷原子核做高速自旋转运动。从电子做单点受力分析,一方面是离心力的作用,另一方面是正负电荷产生的向心力作用,从而实现受力平衡;但是从原子核做单点受力分析,正电荷原子核受到库仑力产生的与向心力对应的拉力,如何做平衡受力分析?这个问题在单原子形态存在的氢原子(比如恒星天体物质)中尤其明显。更进一步讨论原子物理之后,原子(比如放射性元素)在半衰期后为何正负粒子之间不会由于库仑力的相互吸引力而在原子内部合并中和?而是带电粒子高速远离并射出原子外?这些命题都必须借助本文提出的对称三维物质空间中的反物质原理才能解决。再进一步讨论更为复杂的情景:比如两个共价键配对的原子。原子1中有电子1和质子1;原子2中有电子2和质子2。 其中负电荷电子1在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中对应的正电荷电子牵引,并在自身三维时空中形成共价键的原子2中的其中一个正电荷质子2可以配对牵引,而这个正电荷质子2又可与自身原子中的另一个对应负电荷电子2牵引,最后这个负电荷电子2又在第四维度轴上受其对应的对称三维时空中正电荷电子牵引配对。这个串联关系同样作用于电子2-质子1-电子1. 这就像多个串联电池一样正负极、正负极。。。循环连接。














This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 3: The magnetism across time-spaces and the driving force of celestial rotation/磁场的时空穿越与天体旋转原动力

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


1. The magnetism along the fourth dimension axis
Atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line. Therefore, the more asymmetric for the spatial distribution of electric charges in celestial galaxies, the higher the overall polarity, so that the angular velocity of celestial rotation is faster; moreover, the higher the ratio of total mass to total charge (M / E) in celestial galaxies, the slower the angular velocity of celestial rotation. Therefore, within the aster of highest mass (such as black holes), even the most basic electromagnetic waves in the universe, light waves, can be hardly observed, indicating that there is almost no rotational force.


Another viewpoint proposed by this book is that this book can NOT agree with that the phenomenon that heavy mass objects curve spacetime (or time-space) can be observed in this time-space. The similar phenomenon observed by us can be explained by the diffraction of light.






原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。因此,天体星系中电荷空间分布越不对称,整体极性越高,天体旋转角速度越快;不仅如此,天体星系中的总质量与总体电荷量的比值(M/E)越高,天体旋转角速度越慢。所以质量最大的天体(比如黑洞)中,连宇宙中最基本的电磁波,光波都无法显示,说明几乎无旋转动力。





















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 30/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 4: The formation mechanism of substance boundary layers /物质在各形态中的分层与边界形成机制:

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

In the three-dimension materials space, the boundaries commonly exists among the materials of solid state, liquid state or gas state. For example, atmosphere is divided into troposphere and stratosphere by the clear boundary layer between both; the water temperature is divided into different thermal layers along the depth of a lake by the clear boundary between water layers; apparent lithologic stratification is segregated by the geological boundary between them.

The formation of substance boundary: the polarity of polar molecules and atoms (or the induced van der Waals force of non-polar molecules and atoms) leads to the symmetrical arrangement between positive and negative poles. As the whole substances, it tends to be a neutral substance boundary. This neutral substance boundary becomes the obstacle stopping  the polar substances from the transmission through it, resulting in different substance layers.     


Previously published on 04/05/2020. Revised on 01/01/2021.














References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
Article 5. Why does Ocean between NZ and Australia a Climate Change "Hot spot" in Climate Change?/为什么新西兰与澳大利亚之间的海洋成为了气候变化的热点问题?

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honous), The University of Auckland

Firstly, the ozone depletion leads to higher radiation of UV-B in this region; Secondly, the ocean current in this region is the vortex form so that heat can be hardly transferred into other ocean area; thirdly, there would be more oceanic volcano in this regions than other regions.

References:
A public class from Jamie Morton, School of Environment. 2016. The University of Auckland.

Published after graduation on 05/09/2016; Revised on 01/01/2021.




















References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-13 11:23:47 | 显示全部楼层
This is the revised materials of Chapter 10 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science.(3rd Edition)” published in this website.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-13 14:28:52 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1: The materials, relativity and its philosophy attributes/物质、相对论、与哲学属性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 31/05/2016

1.The attributes of materials and fourth dimension time-space
For example, A = 1/a, When parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, A is infinity, which is unmeasurable by us; in comparison, B = (1/a)/(2/a), when parameter ‘a’ turns to be zero, B = 0.5, which is measurable by us due to the relative value between denominator and numerator. This example helps to better understand the interpretation of mass of photon below: similarly, the mass of photon is explained as static mass (or absolute mass) and relative mass by scientists: photon has no static mass, which means that photon mass cannot be weighed by physical balance instrument, but is given relative mass on the basis of deduction by introducing movement speed conception --- this is the relativity by Einstein. According to the relativity proposed by Einstein, once materials reach the velocity of photon, the mass of materials is infinity like example A which is unmeasurable, but in this situation, the conception of mass must be interpreted by example B as relative mass. However, this books thinks that photon is different from the particles (such as electron and neutron) which atom consists of. The particles (such as electron and neutron) forming atoms must have static mass (or absolute mass), no matter how infinitely small these particles are divided into, whereas photon is an existence form of electromagnetic wave energy without static mass (relative mass only). However, both are called as materials in philosophy and physics, which have attributes of mass and movement in the universe!

Of course, Buddhism philosophy also discusses relativity in terms of both space and temporal scales (which will be introduced later). This book agrees with that both conceptions of mass and speed is only measurable by given relative conception in this time-space observed and understood by us! Once the materials transfer into another time-space, both conceptions is meaningless, but this attribute does subsist in the universe which is unmeasurable and not understood by us!

In this book, the time-space observed by us is three dimensions and is just a point on the time axis in the fourth dimension space. However, there are the other countless time-spaces (or points), which can not be observed by us but are NOT independent of our time-space observed by us, along this time axis of the universe. According to the relativity proposed by Einstein, once materials reach the velocity of photon, time goes back. However, this book does not think this science rhythm makes life span longer, but makes life transfer into another time-space which can not be observed by us! This three dimension time-space, which is being observed by us, is just traveling along the fourth axis, the time axis in the universe. At the origin point of time axis, the three dimension time-space which can be observed by us is infinitely small, whereas it turns to be infinity when the three dimension time-space which can be observed by us reaches the end point of time axis. Then it returns to the origin point of time axis again as circle. This is the universe!

'Three Laws of Newton' only suits for this three dimension time-space observed by us. However, the movement of materials in this time-space also meets the movement law (the fourth law) which is relative against other time-spaces on the time axis of the universe which can not be observed by us, that's why this time-space observed by us is expanding and all the stars are moving away from earth! (If sufficient data is available, equations of the fourth law can be deduced). However, the expanding mode of this time-space observed by us is that expanding is spherical expanding but every point in space becomes the center for spherical expanding at equal velocity in this time-space --- this is the movement rhythm proposed by this book, so it is unlike the movement of explosion from only a particle point (big-bang-cosmology). Of course, in addition to this movement rhythm, movement of materials must meet 'Three Laws of Newton' as well. However, at the end of time axis, this time-space observed by us must become the infinite diffusion condition! and then 'Three Laws of Newton' does not exist any more. As pointed out in chapter 11, the electromagnetic wave, as a way releasing Bio-Electric potential energy, spreads at photon velocity, so this energy definitely transfers into another time-space which is not observed by us! Consequently, life energy in this time-space observed by us is from another time-space and leave to the next time-space. Life energy can not be created! which meets the energy conservation law! As we know, the earth does have the magnetic field, and cells also have bio-magnetic field, which leads to both negative and positive poles. This nature influences the movement of materials in the universe. The fourth movement law across different time-spaces would be determined by this magnetic nature, which explains the movement rhythm above more reasonably. It is noted that the the galaxy as a whole must have both negative and positive poles as well! Consequently, the attributes of materials in both philosophy and physics should include movement, mass, energy, and magnetic fields (both positive and negative poles).

2.Energy conservation law and light velocity
Please note: usually the intensity of light radiation energy is measured on the basis of the intensity of electric current or heat. However, when the energy conservation law is interpreted, the energy of photon (or electromagnetic wave) is divided into different types: one is the energy which is able to convert into heat or electric current, and other forms of photon energy, including life energy form in cells (in Chapter 10), is able to transfer into another time-space, which means the energy that is able to convert into heat or electric current is not all the forms of energy in photon (or electromagnetic wave). For example, the momentum or kinetic energy calculated on the basis of relative velocity of photon is NOT able to convert into heat or electric current, but the momentum or kinetic energy is definitely one of energy forms in photons or electromagnetic wave. The carrier of photon momentum or kinetic energy has no static mass but the carrier of heat or electricity must be the particles (such as electron and neutron) which atom consists of and must have static mass as well, so the momentum or kinetic energy calculated on the basis of relative velocity of photon is NOT able to convert into heat or electric current due to different natures between two types of carriers.

Light speed is the transmission velocity of photon in vacuum condition, which obviously is an ideal conception. However, there is another materials in the universe, called as magnetism which reaches infinite transmission velocity in the fourth dimension time-space and is the only materials that is able to transfer across different time-space. This book points out that the energy of electromagnetic waves is divided into electric form, which can be transferred to materials with static mass like particles (such as electron and neutron) which atom consists of, and magnetic form with infinite transmission velocity. Once electromagnetic waves hits the materials with static mass, the electric form energy is transferred into it, whereas the magnetic form energy transfers to another time-space! The ‘second’ magnetic axis discussed  in article 2 is definitely the magnetism between this time-space observed by us and another invisible time-space!


Article 2: The magnetism across time-spaces and gravitation simulation/磁场的时空穿越与万有引力模拟
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 31/05/2016

Hypothesis: The 'second' magnetic axis and its application on simulation of gravitation

As discussed above, the attributes of materials include magnetism which leads to both negative and positive poles. Then a magnetic axis can be drawn from positive pole to negative pole for any materials. However, in the fourth dimension space, another axis (called ‘second’ magnetic axis) must be drawn to explain why gravitation exists in the universe. Taking the earth as an example, there are both south and north poles as the earth magnetism, with earth rotation from west to east. For this movement rhythm, this book hypothesizes that there is another magnetic axis formed by this celestial movements, which sets the center point of the earth planet as the 'positive' pole, and this magnetic axis starts from this center point ('positive' pole) to be away from it at any direction, so there are infinite amounts of magnetic axes diffused from the center point (the 'positive' pole) around the earth planet. Along this magnetic axis, the longer distance to the center point (the 'positive' pole), the weaker 'negative' magnetism potential, which leads to lower acceleration of gravity. Obviously, at the same 'negative' magnetism potential lines, different materials with equal mass must have the same magnetism potential. Consequently, this 'second' magnetic axis explains the existence of gravitation, which can be simulated in physical Lab as well!

It is deduced that the intensity of ‘negative’ magnetism potential along this ‘second’ axis of a planet is a function of planet mass and planet radius (increasing with the increase of planet mass; and decreasing with the increase of planet radius). The earth magnetism between the south and north poles, distributed as curve lines around the earth sphere, is cutting these ‘second’ magnetic axes, which is driven by the earth rotation movement. This rotation movement is generating ‘electricity’, which is similar to ‘Faraday law of electromagnetic induction.’ However, this ‘electricity’ mutually and inversely provides energy to drive earth rotation as well!

Another viewpoint proposed by this book is that this book can NOT agree with that the phenomenon that heavy mass objects curve spacetime (or time-space) can be observed in this time-space. The similar phenomenon observed by us can be explained by the diffraction of light.


Article 3: The angular velocity of aster rotation /天体自转角速率
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 01/06/2016

Viewpoints:
The angular velocity of the earth rotation is a function of the earth magnetism and the intensity of ‘second’ magnetism of this planet discussed in article 2; the other asters (including planet, stars, and galaxy) are the same.

Although the equation is unknown yet, the angular velocity of aster rotation decreases with the decreasing intensity of ‘second’ magnetism (a function of aster mass and aster radius discussed in article 2); and increases with the increasing aster itself magnetism.


Article 4: The Galaxy and Revolution/星系形成与公转
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 07/06/2016

As discussed in chapter 9, the bio-magnetic field of blood cells varies even within the same genetic strain, so that different cell communities can be separated according to the gradual variation in electromagnetism signals (environmental gradient of electromagnetism).

Similarly, different galaxy is separated by the variation in the ‘second’ magnetism as well. The asters with similar magnetic fields along the ‘second’ magnetism are clustered as a community or a galaxy, which excludes other galaxies with different magnetic fields during revolution movement. Please note: the asters include galaxy. For example, the solar system as a sub-galaxy must be classified into a community together with other sub-galaxies showing similar magnetism.

For the revolution movement of galaxy, the ‘second’ magnetism axis can be simply considered to start from the revolution center point and to diffuse away from this center. It is noted that the revolution movement center point of solar system is NOT identical to the center point of sun. It is observed that the angular velocity of sun rotation vary between different latitudes, which would be partly attributed to this science rhythm.The revolution center point of solar system is the point around which all the planets and sun star take revolution movement in solar system, which is not identical to the center point of sun but is nearby. Obviously, sun star takes both rotation and revolution movement concurrently in solar system. It is further deduced that the revolution center point of solar system vary with the expansion of galaxy. However, this change of revolution center point would not be gradual! Once the revolution center point is being changed, sunspot breaking out would be partly triggered by this.


Article 5: The acceleration of Universe Expansion/ 宇宙膨胀加速度
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 11/06/2016

As discussed above, the longer distance to the center point (the 'positive' pole), the weaker 'negative' magnetism potential. Consequently, the energy loss during rotation or revolution movement causes the expansion of asters (the longer distance to the center point) and the decrease of rotation or revolution velocity due to the 'energy conservation law,' although the longer semidiameter of aster increases the intensity of 'electricity' driving rotation or revolution to limited extent discussed  above. According to the rotation or revolution acceleration equation, a=rω*ω ; r is the semidiameter of aster, and ω is the angular velocity of aster rotation or revolution. Obviously, the acceleration of rotation or revolution decreases both with the  expansion of asters (the longer semidiameter) and with the decreasing rotation or revolution velocity. In order to better understand this science rhythm, this equation is revised into Vector Operation: a= - rω*ω, because the expansion direction is opposite to the direction of acceleration (which explains ‘the acceleration of rotation or revolution decreases with the expansion of asters’), and the direction of ω is vertical  to the acceleration direction (which explains ‘ the acceleration of rotation or  revolution decreases with the decreasing rotation or revolution velocity. ’ --- the direction of ω leads to no influences on acceleration in this case). It is further deduced that the expansion acceleration of asters is increasing! Please note: the decreasing acceleration of aster rotation or revolution is just the indicator to measure the expansion velocity of asters, and the direction of acceleration is the same as the centripetal force of rotation or revolution. Centripetal force F = m*a ; m is the mass of aster and a is the rotation or revolution acceleration. Consequently, centripetal force of aster rotation or revolution is decreasing with the decreasing acceleration.


Article 6: The ‘anti-matter’ along time axis in the fourth dimension time-spaces and atomic physics/ 第四维时空中时间轴上的反物质与原子物理学
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 17/06/2016

As stated by other astronomy scientists, this universe is symmetry. Consequently, it is hypothesized that T1, T2, T3, T4 .... are the consecutive time-spaces along time axis  in the fourth dimension time-spaces. For example, the time-space observed by us is T2, and the magnetism of materials in this time-space spans positive pole to negative pole. However, according to the symmetry nature of the universe, in T1 time-space, the magnetism of materials must span negative pole to positive pole, with positive pole as the connection point between T1 and T2; Similarly, in T3 time-space, the magnetism of materials must span negative pole to positive pole,  with negative pole as the connection points between T2 and T3; ......

Consequently, the ‘second’ magnetism axis is the magnetism spanning T1, T2 and T3 time-spaces, from T3 positive pole to T1 negative pole, which is inverse to the direction of magnetism axis in T2.

Atom formation of aster and anti-matter: In an atom, the electron is the negative pole and the proton is the positive pole, with the electron (or negative pole) surrounding the positive pole as the center point. Similarly, as an whole aster, all the atoms of this aster form a positive pole at the center point, spanning T2 and T3, as well as negative pole surrounding the spheres of aster and spanning T1 and T2. The ‘second’ magnetic induction lines starts and are clustered at the center point, diffusing away from this positive pole. Please note: in  this case, the connection points between T1 and T2 (or T2 and T3) must be the  positive and negative poles in an atom, which is the object unit of this research, rather than the whole aster magnetism. It is deduced that for an atom, the  ‘second’ magnetism axis spanning T1, T2 and T3 is exactly opposite to the magnetism axis in T2, which means that two magnetism axes are on the same approximately straight line due to the symmetry nature between T2 atom and the corresponding T3 one. However, when the atoms are clustered as a whole aster in T2, the dominant ‘second’ magnetic induction lines of the whole symmetric T3 object corresponding to this T2 aster are  the curve ones all going through the center point of T2 aster as described above. Taking earth planet as an analogy, all the atoms, in which magnetic lines connect straightly between electron (negative pole) and proton (positive pole), are clustered as an earth planet, but the dominant magnetic induction lines on an earth planet are the curve ones between south and north poles. Why? Because the axis that links atom in T1 to its anti-matter atom in T2 is a curve line and is closed up, the fourth dimension time-axis discussed in this chapter. At the origin point of time axis, the three dimension time-space which can be observed by us is infinitely small, whereas it turns to be infinity when the three dimension time-space which can be observed by us reaches the end point of time axis. Then it returns to the origin point of time axis  again as circle.

Obviously, the closer distance to the positive pole, the denser the ‘second’ magnetic induction lines. Consequently, it is deduced that the intensity of this ‘second’ magnetism is determined by the mass of atoms only rather than the chemistry composition of asters. It is further deduced that in T1 time-space, the atom forms the negative pole as the center point surrounded by the positive electrons --- this is the anti-matter. This anti-matter universe is reasonable: firstly, the positive protons in T2 are clustered in nucleus. According to the exclusion by the same electric  charges, these positive protons must exclude each other --- however, this is not the fact --- so there must be negative center points in T1 to attract these positive protons to keep balance. For example, there is one proton in hydrogen atom, but this atomic nucleus can not keep equilibrium of forces inside atomic motion without this explanation; the negative electrons in T2 are the similar explaining. Secondly, if anti-matter universe does not exist, then the energy loss during electron rotation in atom should easily lead electrons to move towards the protons due to attraction of opposite electric charges. However, this is not consistent with the fact that radioactive elemental atoms emits particles. Obviously, due to the overlap between electrons and nucleus motion orbits in radioactive elemental atoms, the particles would result in collision and this energy loss leads to radioactive element. The identification of orbits has been discussed in article 7.

Consequently, the science rhythms of astrophysics deduced on the basis of the ‘second’ magnetism must be suitable for atomic physics as well, leading to the conclusions and calculations such as rotation velocity of electrons in an atom; the atom decay period and the corresponding expansion of atom radius, etc. According to the anti-matter and symmetric nature, the atomic nuclear movement of T2 is rotating as the ‘positive electron’ around the ‘negative nuclear’ of anti-matter atom, which further deduces the movement rhythms of anti-matter atom in another time-space.

Further more, the movement of molecules must meet the movement rhythm of revolution of galaxy deduced in this chapter, which helps to analyze the molecular attributes of material chemistry as well.

Hypothesis: Mass and Magnetic Induction Lines
The four-dimension spatial equation of magnetic induction lines is F(x);
If the mass of materials consisting of the same atoms is higher than an atom, this spatial equation is y = F(x);
However, if the mass of materials (such as electrons) is lower than this one atom, this
spatial equation is x = F(-y) or x = F (y);
If the mass of materials is just this one atom, then this spatial equation is x or y axis, a straight line. Obviously, the first case is the inverse function to the second case with the third case as the middle line! And only the third case is completely symmetric nature! For the materials consisting of multiple elements, the spatial equation of magnetic induction line y = F(x) is influenced by the factors of atomic mass, spatial shape, chemistry composition, which inversely influences the spatial equation of magnetic induction line x = F(-y) or x = F (y) for the materials in the second case.


Article 7: The particle dualism of electromagnetic waves and
atomic physics/电磁波的波粒二象性与原子物理学
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland. Published after graduation on 28/06/2016


The movement orbit between electron and atomic nucleus
Actually, both electrons and atomic nucleus motion in space. To simplify the motion deduction, it is assumed that the atomic nucleus is static and electrons rotate around atomic nucleus.

Consequently, the movement between electrons (negative poles) and atomic nucleus (positive poles) generates electromagnetic waves; And the cycle, in terms of how much time it takes for electrons to rotate around atomic nucleus in a cycle, determines the frequency of the generated electromagnetic waves; the radius determines the amplitudes of electromagnetic waves.

Light is a kind of electromagnetic waves, which have the attributes of particle dualism. The absorption of light at different frequencies by different elemental atoms reveals the movement orbit between electron and atomic nucleus:

The principal of light absorption: For a specific frequency of light wave, only when the movement between electron and atomic nucleus generates the electromagnetic waves with the same frequency, then this element atoms are able to absorb this specific frequency of light. For example, when the peak of generated electromagnetic waves corresponds to the bottom of light waves with the same frequency, then two waves’ energy offset each other, leading to light absorption. However, the wave peaks (or bottoms) of each generated electromagnetic waves distribute evenly along the transmission direction of light waves. Further more, the amplitudes of generated electromagnetic waves determines how much energy is offset between generated electromagnetic waves and corresponding light waves. Please note: the transmission direction of generated electromagnetic waves is opposite to the incident angle of light waves so that two electromagnetic waves offset each other rather than strengthening each other.

This method deduces the motion orbit between electron and nucleus! This is mine! Of course, the specific frequency and amplitudes (or intensity) of electromagnetic waves can be adjusted over a broader range than light waves for this measurement.

As discussed in article 6, atomic magnetism is divided into static magnetism and time-varying magnetism leading to electromagnetic waves. However, when this

science rhythm is used to deduce the refraction of light and diffraction of light, which is independent of light frequency, static magnetism is the key to explain the phenomenon. Obviously, the magnetic induction lines of the first case discussed in article 6 hypothesis (mass is more than an atom) is the static magnetism resulting in the curving of light waves (refraction of light and diffraction of light), and the refraction angle of light between two different materials of medium reflects the intersection angle between the magnetic induction lines of these two medium, which inversely reflects the magnetic induction lines of the second case discussed in article 6 (mass is less than an atom).

For the diffraction of light, the diffraction angle reflects the surface magnetic curve lines of the dot object. Obviously, the dots made of specific material leads to specific diffraction angle correspondingly, due to different surface curve equations of  magnetic lines between different material.

Because our three-dimension space is curved sphere, all the remote objects observed by us are the enlarged images due to the magnifier effects, so the astro-observation data have to be corrected. The electromagnetic wave transmission speed (such as light speed) varies between different magnetism fields (NOT constant), which leads to significant effects on the astro-observation data.These two effects require corrections of data received by astronomy observations.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-19 10:40:28 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的阴极物质部分围绕阳极中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-19 10:57:50 | 显示全部楼层
本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-19 15:11:04 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和电荷量空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-19 15:14:35 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构提供了理论依据。
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-19 16:27:49 | 显示全部楼层
In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of force axis is weaker, compared with atoms. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-20 14:47:32 | 显示全部楼层
本文在之前的文章中引入了第四维度轴上的磁力线揭示了万有引力的产生。现今补充修改如下观点:原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。

本文在物理化学一章中,电流现象应该揭示为电磁波在不同微观粒子之间的脉冲现象更为合适,不应揭示为电子在不同原子之间的流动(否则就会出现大量从物质中高速迸发出的正电荷质子的现象,以至于所有电导体都跟放射线元素一样,这很明显是过时的理论理解)。所以分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。

微观粒子结构中的质量磁力线:本文提出质量磁力线概念,微观粒子三维空间中的质量磁力线为质量空间分布和磁场量(可以电荷量衡量)空间分布的函数。因此微观粒子(比如一个分子)的质量磁力线的空间分布几何中心既有异于质量空间分布的几何中心点,也不同于电荷量空间分布的几何中心点;而是二者的相互作用点。而这个质量磁力线的空间几何中心点正好是物质集合体自转运动的中心点(不管是微观原子、分子自旋运动,还是天体旋转运动)。可以推测出,简单原子中的质量磁力线几何中心不是原子核的中心,仅仅可以定义为更加接近于原子核中心点,因为电子质量相对于原子核的质量小很多,原子核中心点近似于整个原子质量几何中心点。所以电子内部运动简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动也是过于简单的理解。其实是原子核与电子围绕其质量磁力线几何中心做自旋运动。这对于天体物理学中旋转运动理论计算和高分子合成结构的优化提供了理论依据进行3D分子运动模拟。



In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line.

In the chapter of physical chemistry, the current phenomenon should be revealed as the pulse phenomenon of electromagnetic waves between different atoms or molecules, rather than the flow of electrons between different atoms (otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Therefore, the molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

Magnetic mass lines in micro-particle structure: the concept of magnetic mass line is proposed in this paper. The magnetic mass line in three-dimensional space of micro particles is a function of the spatial distribution of both mass and magnetic field (magnetic fields can be measured by electric charges). Therefore, the geometric center of the spatial distribution of the magnetic mass line within the micro particle (such as a molecule) is not only different from the geometric center point of mass spatial distribution, but also different from the geometric center point of the spatial distribution of electric charges; it is the interaction point of the doubles. The geometric center point of the magnetic mass line is exactly the center point of the rotation motion of the materials aggregated as a whole (such as the rotation motion of electrons in atom, molecule revolution motion discussed above, or celestial rotation motion). It can be inferred that the geometric center of the magnetic mass line in a atom is not the center of the nucleus, which can only be interpreted to be closer to the nuclear center point, because the electron mass is much smaller than the nuclear mass, and the nuclear center point is closer to the geometric center point of the whole atomic mass. Therefore, it is too simple to simplify that the internal motion of the electron in an atom is defined as the rotation of the electrons around the nucleus. In fact, both the nucleus and the electron rotate around the geometric center of its magnetic mass line of an atom. This provides a basis for the theoretical calculation of rotational motion in astrophysics and the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-20 18:52:46 | 显示全部楼层
Why does Ocean between NZ and Australia a Climate Change "Hotspot" in Climate Change?
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honous), The University of Auckland Published after graduation on 05/09/2016

Firstly, the ozone depletion leads to higher radiation of UV-B in this region; Secondly, the ocean current in this region is the vortex form so that heat can be hardly transferred into other ocean area; thirdly, there would be more oceanic volcano in this regions than other regions.

References:
A public class from Jamie Morton, 2016. The University of Auckland.
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