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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-28 15:25:10 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1. Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom/电流与原子中电子运动轨道的稳定性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

The real nature of electricity is the fluids or pulse of electromagnetic waves, rather than electron movement across atoms in conductor materials(otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Consequently, the conductivity of different conductor materials, calculated by the same conditions, reveals the stability of electron orbits in atom. The higher conductivity, the less stable for electron orbits. The pulse of electromagnetic waves indicates that the electrons across different atoms fluctuate concurrently along the same direction. Consequently, the less stable for electron orbits, the easier fluctuation movement.  


















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-28 15:41:16 | 显示全部楼层
Article 2. Van der Waals force and Dark Matter/范德华力与暗物质
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Dark matter is a kind of energy binder underlay in the fourth dimensional space that polymerizes atoms, molecules and the other micro-particles of three-dimension spaces, which makes these micro-particles form an aggregate like a necklace, and thus produces a kind of torsion force, which is called space-time torsion. This conforms to the torque theorem of materials in mechanics. Gravitation, Van der Waals force and inter-atomic force all conforms to the nature of space-time torsion. The stable materials assembly binding by dark matter produces a non-linear buffer force against the external destructive force, which is the principle of torque theorem. The adhesive force of dark matter meets the principle of fluid mechanics. In this article, the torque theorem of solid materials in mechanics is introduced as an example, which is more stable and less disturbance by the other external forces as compared to atmospheric and liquid materials. Because of the existence of dark matter, the conversion of energy between different natures (such as conversion between mechanical energy and magnetic energy) must be based on the calculations of four-dimensional space. The conversion theorem based only on the calculation of three-dimensional space can hardly stand.

The molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as C60) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds, which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.








暗物质为第四维度空间中,聚合原子、分子等三维空间微观粒子的能量粘合剂,使得这类粒子像串项链一样生成集合体,从而产生了一种扭力,称为时空扭力,在力学上符合材料的扭矩定理。万有引力、范德华力、原子间作用力都符合时空扭力的性质。稳定型的暗物质微观粒子集合体相对于外来作用破坏力产生非直线型缓冲对抗力,这就是扭矩定理的产生原理。暗物质的粘合力符合流体力学的定理;本文把固体材料中的扭矩定理作为例子,与气态、液态物质相比更为稳定,受到较少其它外力因素干扰。暗物质的存在,使得能量在不同性质间(比如机械能与磁场能之间)的转换必须建立在四维空间上,仅仅是三维空间中的转换定理是无法成立的。

分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如C60)物质的导电性能普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。













This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-29 09:54:45 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1. Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom/电流与原子中电子运动轨道的稳定性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

The real nature of electricity is the fluids or pulse of electromagnetic waves, rather than electron movement across atoms in conductor materials(otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Consequently, the conductivity of different conductor materials, calculated by the same conditions, reveals the stability of electron orbits in atom. The higher conductivity, the less stable for electron orbits. The pulse of electromagnetic waves indicates that the electrons across different atoms fluctuate concurrently along the same direction. Consequently, the less stable for electron orbits, the easier fluctuation movement. The less symmetry of molecule structure, the more conductivity (more free electrons). For example, in the graphite structure unit within which each carbon atom combines with other carbon atoms by forming three covalent bonds , still leaving one free electron as the conductor of charge. For example, C60 is the highly symmetric form in space under normal conditions so that it is not the electric conductor. Once metal atom is synthesized into C60 to alter its symmetry of spatial structure, which leads to the unpaired electrons orbits, superconductivity occurs.  












This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
回复 支持 反对

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-29 09:55:28 | 显示全部楼层
Article 2. Van der Waals force and Dark Matter/范德华力与暗物质
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Dark matter is a kind of energy binder underlay in the fourth dimensional space that polymerizes atoms, molecules and the other micro-particles of three-dimension spaces, which makes these micro-particles form an aggregate like a necklace, and thus produces a kind of torsion force, which is called space-time torsion. This conforms to the torque theorem of materials in mechanics. Gravitation, Van der Waals force and inter-atomic force all conforms to the nature of space-time torsion. The stable materials assembly binding by dark matter produces a non-linear buffer force against the external destructive force, which is the principle of torque theorem. The adhesive force of dark matter meets the principle of fluid mechanics. In this article, the torque theorem of solid materials in mechanics is introduced as an example, which is more stable and less disturbance by the other external forces as compared to atmospheric and liquid materials. Because of the existence of dark matter, the conversion of energy between different natures (such as conversion between mechanical energy and magnetic energy) must be based on the calculations of four-dimensional space. The conversion theorem based only on the calculation of three-dimensional space can hardly stand.

The molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as graphite) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds in common/normal conditions (not superconductivity condition), which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer.Under the condition of high temperature, the internal/thermal energy of materials increases, and the movement that micro-particles collide with each other randomly accelerate, so the required adhesion force by the energy binder of dark matter increases. On the other hand, the closer to absolute zero temperature, the more slowly the micro particles collide with each other randomly, so that the weaker adhesion forces is required by dark matter energy binder. Therefore, superconductor conditions are formed at low temperature. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

暗物质为第四维度空间中,聚合原子、分子等三维空间微观粒子的能量粘合剂,使得这类粒子像串项链一样生成集合体,从而产生了一种扭力,称为时空扭力,在力学上符合材料的扭矩定理。万有引力、范德华力、原子间作用力都符合时空扭力的性质。稳定型的暗物质微观粒子集合体相对于外来作用破坏力产生非直线型缓冲对抗力,这就是扭矩定理的产生原理。暗物质的粘合力符合流体力学的定理;本文把固体材料中的扭矩定理作为例子,与气态、液态物质相比更为稳定,受到较少其它外力因素干扰。暗物质的存在,使得能量在不同性质间(比如机械能与磁场能之间)的转换必须建立在四维空间上,仅仅是三维空间中的转换定理是无法成立的。

分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如石墨)物质的导电性能在常态条件下(非超导条件)普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。物质在高温条件下,内能增加,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动加剧,从而对暗物质能量粘合力增加。反之,越接近绝对零度,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动减缓,从而对暗物质能量粘合力减弱。因此,超导体条件都形成于低温条件。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。













This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
回复 支持 反对

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-31 11:12:00 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1. Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom/电流与原子中电子运动轨道的稳定性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

The real nature of electricity is the fluids or pulse of electromagnetic waves, rather than electron movement across atoms in conductor materials(otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Consequently, the conductivity of different conductor materials, calculated by the same conditions, reveals the stability of electron orbits in atom. The higher conductivity, the less stable for electron orbits. The pulse of electromagnetic waves indicates that the electrons across different atoms fluctuate concurrently along the same direction. Consequently, the less stable for electron orbits, the easier fluctuation movement. The less symmetry of molecule structure, the more conductivity (more free electrons). For example, in the graphite structure unit within which each carbon atom combines with other carbon atoms by forming three covalent bonds , still leaving one free electron as the conductor of charge. For example, C60 is the highly symmetric form in space under normal conditions so that it is not the electric conductor. Once metal atom is synthesized into C60 to alter its symmetry of spatial structure, which leads to the unpaired electrons orbits, superconductivity occurs.  












This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 2. Van der Waals force and Dark Matter/范德华力与暗物质
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Dark matter is a kind of energy binder underlay in the fourth dimensional space that polymerizes atoms, molecules and the other micro-particles of three-dimension spaces, which makes these micro-particles form an aggregate like a necklace, and thus produces a kind of torsion force, which is called space-time torsion. This conforms to the torque theorem of materials in mechanics. Gravitation, Van der Waals force and inter-atomic force all conforms to the nature of space-time torsion. The stable materials assembly binding by dark matter produces a non-linear buffer force against the external destructive force, which is the principle of torque theorem. The adhesive force of dark matter meets the principle of fluid mechanics. In this article, the torque theorem of solid materials in mechanics is introduced as an example, which is more stable and less disturbance by the other external forces as compared to atmospheric and liquid materials. Because of the existence of dark matter, the conversion of energy between different natures (such as conversion between mechanical energy and magnetic energy) must be based on the calculations of four-dimensional space. The conversion theorem based only on the calculation of three-dimensional space can hardly stand.

The molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as graphite) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds in common/normal conditions (not superconductivity condition), which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer.Under the condition of high temperature, the internal/thermal energy of materials increases, and the movement that micro-particles collide with each other randomly accelerate, so the required adhesion force by the energy binder of dark matter increases. On the other hand, the closer to absolute zero temperature, the more slowly the micro particles collide with each other randomly, so that the weaker adhesion forces is required by dark matter energy binder. Therefore, superconductor conditions are formed at low temperature. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

暗物质为第四维度空间中,聚合原子、分子等三维空间微观粒子的能量粘合剂,使得这类粒子像串项链一样生成集合体,从而产生了一种扭力,称为时空扭力,在力学上符合材料的扭矩定理。万有引力、范德华力、原子间作用力都符合时空扭力的性质。稳定型的暗物质微观粒子集合体相对于外来作用破坏力产生非直线型缓冲对抗力,这就是扭矩定理的产生原理。暗物质的粘合力符合流体力学的定理;本文把固体材料中的扭矩定理作为例子,与气态、液态物质相比更为稳定,受到较少其它外力因素干扰。暗物质的存在,使得能量在不同性质间(比如机械能与磁场能之间)的转换必须建立在四维空间上,仅仅是三维空间中的转换定理是无法成立的。

分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如石墨)物质的导电性能在常态条件下(非超导条件)普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。物质在高温条件下,内能增加,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动加剧,从而对暗物质能量粘合力增加。反之,越接近绝对零度,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动减缓,从而对暗物质能量粘合力减弱。因此,超导体条件都形成于低温条件。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。













This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
Article 3. Molecular Attributes of ‘Revolution’ Motion in Materials/分子‘公转’运动与材料的分子特性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line. Further more, the more asymmetric for the spatial distribution of electric charges in molecules, the higher the overall polarity, so that the angular velocity of molecules is faster and consequently the chemistry reaction is more active; moreover, the higher the ratio of total mass to total charge (M / E) in molecules, the slower the angular velocity of molecules, so the chemistry reaction is less active. This also provides the basis for the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.












原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。因此,分子中电荷空间分布越不对称,整体极性越高,分子旋转角速度越快,化学反应特性越活跃;不仅如此,分子中的总质量与总体电荷量的比值(M/E)越高,分子旋转角速度越慢,化学反应特性较不活跃。这为通过3D模拟优化高分子化合物提供了依据。






















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
回复 支持 反对

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-12-31 15:24:33 | 显示全部楼层
Article 1. Electricity and Stability of Electron orbits in Atom/电流与原子中电子运动轨道的稳定性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

The real nature of electricity is the fluids or pulse of electromagnetic waves, rather than electron movement across atoms in conductor materials(otherwise, there will be a large number of positively charged protons bursting out at high speed, so that all electric conductors are the same as radioactive elements, which is obviously out of date). Consequently, the conductivity of different conductor materials, calculated by the same conditions, reveals the stability of electron orbits in atom. The higher conductivity, the less stable for electron orbits. The pulse of electromagnetic waves indicates that the electrons across different atoms fluctuate concurrently along the same direction. Consequently, the less stable for electron orbits, the easier fluctuation movement. The less symmetry of molecule structure, the more conductivity (more free electrons). For example, in the graphite structure unit within which each carbon atom combines with other carbon atoms by forming three covalent bonds , still leaving one free electron as the conductor of charge. For example, C60 is the highly symmetric form in space under normal conditions so that it is not the electric conductor. Once metal atom is synthesized into C60 to alter its symmetry of spatial structure, which leads to the unpaired electrons orbits, superconductivity occurs.  






This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 2. Van der Waals force and Dark Matter/范德华力与暗物质
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Dark matter is a kind of energy binder underlay in the fourth dimensional space that polymerizes atoms, molecules and the other micro-particles of three-dimension spaces, which makes these micro-particles form an aggregate like a necklace, and thus produces a kind of torsion force, which is called space-time torsion. This conforms to the torque theorem of materials in mechanics. Gravitation, Van der Waals force and inter-atomic force all conforms to the nature of space-time torsion. The stable materials assembly binding by dark matter produces a non-linear buffer force against the external destructive force, which is the principle of torque theorem. The adhesive force of dark matter meets the principle of fluid mechanics. In this article, the torque theorem of solid materials in mechanics is introduced as an example, which is more stable and less disturbance by the other external forces as compared to atmospheric and liquid materials. Because of the existence of dark matter, the conversion of energy between different natures (such as conversion between mechanical energy and magnetic energy) must be based on the calculations of four-dimensional space. The conversion theorem based only on the calculation of three-dimensional space can hardly stand.

The molecular structure is usually similar to the internal structure of the atom, which leads to internal neutralization and shield effect during the revolution motion, but it is weaker. The reason is that the binder of the fourth dimension dark matter makes the movement of elementary particles inside molecules more parallel to the fourth dimension axis, while the motion of particles inside atoms is more vertical relatively to the fourth dimension axis. This also makes the electric field effect by the cutting motion of the elementary particles in the molecules relative to the magnetic line of fourth axis is weaker, compared with atoms. Therefore, in physical chemistry, the conductivity of single atom materials (such as metals) or single element crystals (such as graphite) is generally higher than that of multi-elements chemical compounds in common/normal conditions (not superconductivity condition), which is closely related to the adhesion properties of dark matter. Generally, the adhesive force required by single element polymer is less than that of multi-elements form polymer.Under the condition of high temperature, the internal/thermal energy of materials increases, and the movement that micro-particles collide with each other randomly accelerate, so the required adhesion force by the energy binder of dark matter increases. On the other hand, the closer to absolute zero temperature, the more slowly the micro particles collide with each other randomly, so that the weaker adhesion forces is required by dark matter energy binder. Therefore, superconductor conditions are formed at low temperature. It provides the inverse deduced/demonstrated methods through the data conclusion of molecules in three-dimensional space to extrapolate the adhesion of dark matter on the fourth dimension axis.

暗物质为第四维度空间中,聚合原子、分子等三维空间微观粒子的能量粘合剂,使得这类粒子像串项链一样生成集合体,从而产生了一种扭力,称为时空扭力,在力学上符合材料的扭矩定理。万有引力、范德华力、原子间作用力都符合时空扭力的性质。稳定型的暗物质微观粒子集合体相对于外来作用破坏力产生非直线型缓冲对抗力,这就是扭矩定理的产生原理。暗物质的粘合力符合流体力学的定理;本文把固体材料中的扭矩定理作为例子,与气态、液态物质相比更为稳定,受到较少其它外力因素干扰。暗物质的存在,使得能量在不同性质间(比如机械能与磁场能之间)的转换必须建立在四维空间上,仅仅是三维空间中的转换定理是无法成立的。

分子结构通常也跟原子内部结构一样,在公转过程中有内部中性屏蔽作用,但是更为微弱一些。原因是第四维度暗物质的粘合剂使得分子内部微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动更加趋向于平行切线运动,而原子内部粒子相对于第四维度轴的运动是更加趋向于垂直运动。这也使得分子中的微观粒子相对于第四维度轴的磁力线所进行的切割运动产生的电场效应更弱一些。因此,物理化学中单原子形态存在的物质(比如金属)或是单晶体(比如石墨)物质的导电性能在常态条件下(非超导条件)普遍高于多元素化学物质的导电性能,与暗物质的粘合力特性有很大关联。通常单元素物质形态聚合体所需要的粘合力小于多元素物质形态聚合体。物质在高温条件下,内能增加,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动加剧,从而对暗物质能量粘合力增加。反之,越接近绝对零度,微观粒子相互随机碰撞运动减缓,从而对暗物质能量粘合力减弱。因此,超导体条件都形成于低温条件。这正好可以从分子在三维空间的数据结论逆向反证出其在第四维度轴上暗物质的粘合力,提供了反证推算方法。










This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 3. Molecular Attributes of ‘Revolution’ Motion in Materials/分子‘公转’运动与材料的分子特性

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

In the previous paper, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is introduced to reveal the generation of universal gravitation. At present, the academic viewpoints are supplemented and modified as: atom is the most primitive material form of elementary particles; in our three-dimensional space, the motion model of elementary particles in atom can be simplified as the rotation of electrons around the nucleus, and the nuclei and electrons are the negative and positive poles of matter's magnetic properties; at the same time, the magnetic line on the fourth dimension axis is perpendicular to the three-dimensional space. These elementary particles cut along the magnetic line of on the fourth dimensional axis, thus generating electric charges. The existence of the electromagnetic induction theorem is the original driving force for electrons to rotate around the nucleus; for molecules with poly-atomic aggregation form, in the previous discussion, the dark matter on the fourth dimensional axis as an energy binder polymerizes mono-atomic matter, which makes the cutting motion on magnetic lines of the fourth axis, leading to ‘the revolution movement’. Similarly, the matter in molecular structure makes "revolution" around the geometric center of the magnetic mass line; by analogy, the original driving force of the earth's rotation and the revolution of other galaxies are generated by the electromagnetic induction theorem when the material properties of Yin and Yang poles in three-dimensional space are cutting the fourth dimensional magnetic line. Further more, the more asymmetric for the spatial distribution of electric charges in molecules, the higher the overall polarity, so that the angular velocity of molecules is faster and consequently the chemistry reaction is more active; moreover, the higher the ratio of total mass to total charge (M / E) in molecules, the slower the angular velocity of molecules, so the chemistry reaction is less active. This also provides the basis for the optimization of synthetic structure of polymers by 3D simulation of molecule movement.












原子是基本粒子最原始的物质形态;我们所在的三维空间中,原子中的基本粒子运动模型可以简化为电子围绕原子核做自转运动,原子核与电子为物质磁场属性的阴阳两极;与此同时,第四维度轴上的磁力线与三维空间垂直,阴阳两极基本粒子在第四维度轴的磁力线上做切割运动,从而产生了电荷。电磁感应定理的存在,是电子围绕原子核做自转运动的原始驱动力;对于多原子物质聚合形态的分子,在此前论述中,在第四维度轴上的暗物质作为能量粘合剂聚合了单原子物质,使得三维空间分子结构中的阴阳极性在第四维度轴上的磁力线的切割运动,进行着“公转”运动。相似的,分子结构中的物质围绕整体质量磁力线的几何中心做“公转”运动;余此类推,地球自转和其它星系公转运动的原始推动力,都是三维空间中的阴阳两极物质属性与第四维度磁力线做切割运动时电磁感应定理产生。因此,分子中电荷空间分布越不对称,整体极性越高,分子旋转角速度越快,化学反应特性越活跃;不仅如此,分子中的总质量与总体电荷量的比值(M/E)越高,分子旋转角速度越慢,化学反应特性较不活跃。这为通过3D模拟优化高分子化合物提供了依据。






















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 4. The Principal of Thermodynamics: The Inner Energy, Energy Loss and Materials Perishing /热力学原理:内能,能量损耗与材料老化

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

As discussed above, the electromagnetic waves emitted by molecule motion is the transmission pathways/forms of thermal energy (or inner energy), and the collisions among molecules lead to energy lose. This energy lose is caused by the aging of dark matter energy binder, so the nature of materials perishing is the aging of dark matter binding micro-particles. Inversely, when the molecules of materials is heated by other sources of thermal energy, the frequency of molecule revolution is risen so that higher intensity of electromagnetic waves is emitted by molecule motion and higher frequency of collisions among molecules is caused as well. Consequently, this process is reversible. Nevertheless, the lower density among molecules usually leads to less collisions so that less energy lose is caused correspondingly.

















This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 5. The Principal of Thermodynamics: Specific Heat Capacity and Material/热力学原理:比热容与材料

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


As discussed above, once the transmission direction of generated electromagnetic waves is opposite to the incident angle of light waves, these two electromagnetic waves of the same frequency offset each other rather than strengthening each other. However, this is the reversible process as well. Only higher intensity of electromagnetic waves from external thermal sources, which have the same frequency as the electromagnetic waves emitted by the molecule motion of receptor objects, is able to ‘heat’ the receptor objects. However, the thermal energy, in terms of temperature ascending or descending capacity, varies among different frequencies of electromagnetic waves. Consequently, if the frequencies of electromagnetic waves emitted by the molecule motion of receptor objects is the frequencies leading to higher thermal energy, in terms of higher thermal  energy caused by temperature change per unit, then the specific heat capacity of this receptor object is higher! In this case, the efficiency of specific heat capacity is the not linear relationship with the increased frequency of electromagnetic waves emitted by materials (not received by materials), due to the buffering effects of dark matter.   













This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/


Article 6. Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and Application on Chemistry Reaction Rate/八卦与矩阵运算及其在化学反应速率中的应用研究

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams is created by the first King in Chinese race by literature, Fuxi. This is a tool to deduce and analyze the inter-relationships across materials or affairs consisting of five elements (Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Soil) at both temporal and spacial scales, with the key philosophy of Yin and Yang (translation as negative and positive poles respectively). As discussed in this book, the basic attribute of materials contains magnetism, so the first one presenting this philosophy  is just Fuxi in literature. The method of deducing and analyzing the inter-relationships across materials or affairs by Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams is the embryo of matrix and linear algebra. However, for the matrix discussed in this book, 0 represents negative pole and 1 represents positive pole like the matrix designed in Chapter 8, and the philosophy of this originates from the Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams. Unlike Taoists who utilize this tool to predict people’s fate or fortune, this book aims to succeed the philosophy of Ancient Chinese Eight Diagrams and further develop this on bio-medicine engineering or chemical engineering.

Hypotheses: in a fixed spacial point, the molecule revolution motion frequently and regularly passes through this spacial point. If this molecule motion exactly passes through this spacial point, the magnetism value in this point is defined as 1; if this molecule motion leaves this spacial point, the magnetism value in this point is defined as 0. Then the matrix of this spacial point is defined as:

Matrix A = [a1,a2,a3,...]
Matrix B = [b1,b2,b3,...]

In this matrix, a1 is the magnetism value at time T1; a2 is the magnetism value at time T2; a3 is the magnetism value at time T3..... ;And a1, a2, a3 ... are the value 0 or 1. Matrix B is the same definition.

Matrix A is the matrix representing molecule A; Matrix B is the matrix representing molecule B. Chemistry reaction occurs between molecule A and molecule B. Only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The other intersection angles between molecule A and B collision can not lead to chemistry reaction. Consequently, it is hypothesized that molecule motion shows equal chances of occurrence in each spacial point along motion orbit, and the occurrence of collision between molecule A and B in a specific point is calculated as:

Chemistry Reaction Rate = Matrix A * (Matrix B)^T = [a1*b1, a2*b2, a3*b3,...] (Matrix B)^T is the transpose of Matrix B

In this matrix, if a1*b1 = 0, there is no occurrence of collision between two molecule A and B; if a1*b1 = 1, collision between two molecules occurs...; However, only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The probability/chance of this specific angle is proportional to the 360° during the molecular revolution. This matrix reflects the inter-dependent effects between two symmetric time spaces along the fourth dimension axis.     

Consequently, the spacial points of intersection among the motion orbits of different molecules can be deduced by test and 3D graph. Obviously, the orbits of molecule motion is sphere shape, forming electromagnetic waves diffused around this.

Increased thermal energy increases the frequency of molecule motion along orbit and alters the structure of spacial magnetism curves in a molecule, which triggers the threshold energy for chemistry reaction. Once the motion rhythm of spacial magnetism curves in synthesized molecule leads to higher thermal energy than previous molecules, this is the exothermic reaction; once the motion rhythm of spacial magnetism curves in synthesized molecule leads to lower thermal energy than previous molecules, this is the endothermic chemistry reaction.










This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/

Article 7. Biochemistry in a ‘life’ cell V.S. Abiotic Chemistry Reaction/一个生命细胞中的生物化学反应与无生命的化学反应

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.


As discussed before, only once molecule A and molecule B collides at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between two molecule A and B, chemistry reaction occurs. The molecular structure of both bio-molecule (such as DNA or RNA) and abiotic molecules can be changed by external electromagnetic waves. However, both change is not identical. External electromagnetic waves is perceived by cells or virus firstly, and then cells change the molecule structure of DNA (or RNA) actively through cell division process. In comparison, abiotic molecules is change by external electromagnetic waves passively or destructively. Consequently, abiotic molecules usually require higher intensity of electromagnetic waves to make changes than biotic molecules. For example, the required intensity of electromagnetic waves must be higher to break the chemical bond of ‘dead’ DNA molecule than the ‘living’ DNA molecule in cell.

Why does this difference occur? Because a living cell is able to identify or recognize the molecular structure of chemical molecule, so that cell actively and selectively binds different molecules at specific intersection angle (or angles) of spacial magnetism curves between them to make chemistry reaction happen, rather than making different molecules collide each other randomly as abiotic chemistry reaction. The ‘living’ organ utilizes bio-energy to drive chemistry reactions, emitting bio-electromagnetic waves, called life signals; whereas the abiotic chemistry reactions uses inner energy to drive or initiate.  

Consequently, the biochemistry composition of molecules is not the only consideration for cell to digest, but also the molecular structure of molecules which can be identified or recognized by cell. This provides the study focus for bio-synthesis in future!


This is the revised materials of Chapter 11 in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 31/12/2020.  

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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