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发表于 2021-1-20 09:06:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

Published as Newsletter updated.

The formally published serials is the printing <Journal of Environment and Health Science (ISSN 2314-1628)>, and the serials NO. is the month/year when the materials accessible on this website, authorized by publisher;
正式发表的期刊是印刷版《环境与卫生科学杂志(ISSN 2314-1628)》,期刊期号为文章内容在本网站上网年/月,出版人许可自行正式发表。

Originality Certificate: The originality of text in English is 98% tested by Turnitin (International). Attachment is the Turnitin Originality Report.

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-20 09:07:10 | 显示全部楼层
DNA/基因分子结构中的某个位点(locus)应当定义为特定基因序列片段在整个基因组序列信息总量的比例,不应当定义为在整个基因组上的特定物理位置,这样定义更为准确一些。基因在某个位点上的突变,并非发生在基因组的某个特定物理位置上的。PCR电泳条段是各种基因序列片段之间一种相对质量的反映。因此特定PCR电泳条段的相对位置是其自身在该实验中所有测定基因组序列中数量型基因的反映,同时也反映该特定基因序列在该实验中所有测定基因序列信息总量中的比例。对应的,酶化学电泳图谱中的电泳条段也反应各种不同数量型基因所表达出酶分子的相对分子质量。对于一个个体的多种类同工酶酶谱,在同一位点上的电泳条段,也具有可比性。对于不同同工酶种类之间的在同一位点上的电泳条段,正好就是该个体在数量型基因具备相等地位的不同基因序列之间的反映。
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-20 09:16:50 | 显示全部楼层
References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-20 09:20:08 | 显示全部楼层
DNA/基因分子结构中的某个位点(locus)应当定义为特定基因序列片段在整个基因组序列信息总量的比例,不应当定义为在整个基因组上的特定物理位置,这样定义更为准确一些。基因在某个位点上的突变,定义为发生在基因组的某个特定物理位置上,这样不是很准确,仅仅是便于理解而已。PCR电泳条段是各种基因序列片段之间一种相对质量的反映。因此特定PCR电泳条段的相对位置是其自身在该实验中所有测定基因组序列中数量型基因的反映,同时也反映该特定基因序列在该实验中所有测定基因序列信息总量中的比例。对应的,酶化学电泳图谱中的电泳条段也反应各种不同数量型基因所表达出酶分子的相对分子质量。对于一个个体的多种类同工酶酶谱,在同一位点上的电泳条段,也具有可比性。对于不同同工酶种类之间的在同一位点上的电泳条段,正好就是该个体在数量型基因具备相等地位的不同基因序列之间的反映。


References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-20 09:48:52 | 显示全部楼层
DNA/基因分子结构中的某个位点(locus)应当定义为特定基因序列片段在整个基因组序列信息总量的比例,不应当定义为在整个基因组上的特定物理位置,这样定义更为准确一些。基因在某个位点上的突变,定义为发生在基因组的某个特定物理位置上,这样不是很准确,仅仅是便于理解而已。PCR电泳条段是各种基因序列片段之间一种相对质量的反映。因此特定PCR电泳条段的相对位置是其自身在该实验中所有测定基因组序列中数量型基因的反映,同时也反映该特定基因序列在该实验中所有测定基因序列信息总量中的比例。对应的,酶化学电泳图谱中的电泳条段也反应各种不同数量型基因所表达出酶分子的相对分子质量。对于一个个体的多种类同工酶酶谱,在同一位点上的电泳条段,也具有可比性。对于不同同工酶种类之间的在同一位点上的电泳条段,正好就是该个体在数量型基因具备相等地位(基因信息比例具备相同地位)的不同基因序列之间的反映。

A locus in DNA / gene molecule should be defined as the proportion of a specific gene sequence segment to the total information of the whole genome, rather than as a specific physical position in the whole genome, which is more accurate. Gene mutation at a certain locus is defined as the gene sequence alteration at a specific physical position in the genome, which is not accurate. PCR electrophoresis is a reflection of the relative molecule mass among various gene sequences. Therefore, the relative position of a specific PCR electrophoresis band is not only a reflection of its quantitative gene among all the gene sequences tested in this experiment, but also a reflection of the proportion of the specific gene sequence information to the total information of all gene sequences tested in this experiment. Correspondingly, the electrophoretic bands in the electrophoretogram also reflect the relative molecular weight of the enzyme molecules expressed by different quantitative genes tested in this experiment. The electrophoretic bands at the same locus are also comparable among different isozyme species of an individual. The electrophoretic bands on the same locus among different isozyme species are just the reflection of different gene sequences with the same quantitative gene status (or the same proportional gene information to the total gene information tested in a experiment).

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-20 10:02:16 | 显示全部楼层
Review on the specificity of host-pathogen interactions with emphasis on the specific inhibitor proteins synthesized in the immunological process.   

To be continued as life-long learning ......
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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-21 11:13:11 | 显示全部楼层
Review on the specificity of host-pathogen interactions with emphasis on the specific inhibitor proteins synthesized in the invasion-defence process.

1.Pathogen S. aureus VS. Human
Staphylococcal aureus complement inhibitor (SCIN) of protein was discovered [1]. SCIN infects a broad range of animal species, including horses, humans, pigs, which is evolved into strong adaptiveness through genome modification (such as by gene communications with external genetic segments aiming to host-invasion interactions). For the human S. aureus, a specific variant stream was found to block human complement system; for the horse S. aureus, the specific equine variant of SCIN was indicated to inhibit the horse complement system.

Accordingly, A specific Human monoclonal antibodies (humAbs), named as 6D4, was abstracted from B-cells screened randomly, which specifically binds the SCIN and C3 convertases as inhibitors against S. aureus[2].

In this article, it is further proposed that compared with S. aureus that evolves across host animal species with closer genetic distances, COVID-19 virus originates from the wild species with longer genetic distance to human, which is evolved into adaptation on human host by acquisition of human gene segments for self-modification of virus genome. This is one of the key factor to explain why COVID-19 is more epidemic than before.

To be continued....   
















References
[1]De Jong NWM, Vrieling M, Garcia BL, Koop G, Brettmann M, Aerts PC, Ruyken M, van Strijp JAG, Holmes M, Harrison EM, Geisbrecht BV, Rooijakkers SHM. Identification of a staphylococcal complement inhibitor with broad host specificity in equid Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 23;293(12):4468-4477. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000599. Epub 2018 Feb 5. PMID: 29414776; PMCID: PMC5868266.
[2]Hoekstra H, Romero Pastrana F, Bonarius HPJ, van Kessel KPM, Elsinga GS, Kooi N, Groen H, van Dijl JM, Buist G. A human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds and inhibits the staphylococcal complement inhibitor protein SCIN. Virulence. 2018 Jan 1;9(1):70-82. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1294297. Epub 2017 May 8. PMID: 28277903; PMCID: PMC5955450.






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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-21 11:30:24 | 显示全部楼层
Review on the specificity of host-pathogen interactions with emphasis on the specific inhibitor proteins synthesized in the invasion-defence process.

1.Pathogen S. aureus VS. Human
Staphylococcal aureus complement inhibitor (SCIN) of protein was discovered [1]. SCIN infects a broad range of animal species, including horses, humans, pigs, which is evolved into strong adaptiveness through genome modification (such as by gene communications with external genetic segments aiming to host-invasion interactions). For the human S. aureus, a specific variant stream was found to block human complement system; for the horse S. aureus, the specific equine variant of SCIN was indicated to inhibit the horse complement system.

Accordingly, A specific Human monoclonal antibodies (humAbs), named as 6D4, was abstracted from B-cells screened randomly, which specifically binds the SCIN and C3 convertases as inhibitors against S. aureus[2].

In this article, it is further proposed that compared with S. aureus that evolves across host animal species with closer genetic distances, COVID-19 virus originates from the wild species with longer genetic distance to human, which is evolved into adaptation on human host by acquisition of human gene segments for self-modification of virus genome. This is one of the key factor to explain why COVID-19 is more epidemic than before.

To be continued....   
















References
[1]De Jong NWM, Vrieling M, Garcia BL, Koop G, Brettmann M, Aerts PC, Ruyken M, van Strijp JAG, Holmes M, Harrison EM, Geisbrecht BV, Rooijakkers SHM. Identification of a staphylococcal complement inhibitor with broad host specificity in equid Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 23;293(12):4468-4477. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000599. Epub 2018 Feb 5. PMID: 29414776; PMCID: PMC5868266.
[2]Hoekstra H, Romero Pastrana F, Bonarius HPJ, van Kessel KPM, Elsinga GS, Kooi N, Groen H, van Dijl JM, Buist G. A human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds and inhibits the staphylococcal complement inhibitor protein SCIN. Virulence. 2018 Jan 1;9(1):70-82. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1294297. Epub 2017 May 8. PMID: 28277903; PMCID: PMC5955450.

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-21 18:57:53 | 显示全部楼层
The specificity of host-pathogen interactions with emphasis on the specific inhibitor proteins synthesized in the invasion-defense process.

Key viewpoints:
This article presents novel theory analyzing the electrophoretic bands between different isozyme species. A matrix is designed in my previous article to make the electrophoretic bands comparable across different isozyme species for PCA analysis. However, the related theory underlying the matrix calculation is discussed in this article below: A locus in DNA / gene molecule should be defined as the proportion of a specific gene sequence segment to the total information of the whole genome, rather than as a specific physical position in the whole genome, which is more accurate. Gene mutation at a certain locus is defined as the gene sequence alteration at a specific physical position in the genome, which is not accurate. PCR electrophoresis is a reflection of the relative molecule mass among various gene sequences. Therefore, the relative position of a specific PCR electrophoresis band is not only a reflection of its quantitative gene among all the gene sequences tested in this experiment, but also a reflection of the proportion of the specific gene sequence information to the total information of all gene sequences tested in this experiment. Correspondingly, the electrophoretic bands in the electrophoretogram also reflect the relative molecular weight of the enzyme molecules expressed by different quantitative genes tested in this experiment. The electrophoretic bands at the same locus are also comparable among different isozyme species of an individual. The electrophoretic bands on the same locus among different isozyme species are just the reflection of different gene sequences with the same quantitative gene status (or the same proportional gene information to the total gene information tested in a experiment).

1.Pathogen S. aureus VS. Human
Staphylococcal aureus complement inhibitor (SCIN) of protein was discovered [1]. SCIN infects a broad range of animal species, including horses, humans, pigs, which is evolved into strong adaptiveness through genome modification (such as by gene communications with external genetic segments aiming to host-invasion interactions). For the human S. aureus, a specific variant stream was found to block human complement system; for the horse S. aureus, the specific equine variant of SCIN was indicated to inhibit the horse complement system.

Accordingly, A specific Human monoclonal antibodies (humAbs), named as 6D4, was abstracted from B-cells screened randomly, which specifically binds the SCIN and C3 convertases as inhibitors against S. aureus[2].

In this article, it is further proposed that compared with S. aureus that evolves across host animal species with closer genetic distances, COVID-19 virus originates from the wild species with longer genetic distance to human, which is evolved into adaptation on human host by acquisition of human gene segments for self-modification of virus genome. This is one of the key factor to explain why COVID-19 is more epidemic than before.

To be continued....   
















References
[1]De Jong NWM, Vrieling M, Garcia BL, Koop G, Brettmann M, Aerts PC, Ruyken M, van Strijp JAG, Holmes M, Harrison EM, Geisbrecht BV, Rooijakkers SHM. Identification of a staphylococcal complement inhibitor with broad host specificity in equid Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 23;293(12):4468-4477. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000599. Epub 2018 Feb 5. PMID: 29414776; PMCID: PMC5868266.
[2]Hoekstra H, Romero Pastrana F, Bonarius HPJ, van Kessel KPM, Elsinga GS, Kooi N, Groen H, van Dijl JM, Buist G. A human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds and inhibits the staphylococcal complement inhibitor protein SCIN. Virulence. 2018 Jan 1;9(1):70-82. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1294297. Epub 2017 May 8. PMID: 28277903; PMCID: PMC5955450.

Certificate: The originality of text in English is 98% tested by Turnitin Tool. Attachment is the Turnitin Originality Report.

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 楼主| 发表于 2021-1-25 15:59:06 | 显示全部楼层
The specificity of host-pathogen interactions with emphasis on the specific inhibitor proteins synthesized in the invasion-defense process.

1.Pathogen S. aureus VS. Human
Staphylococcal aureus complement inhibitor (SCIN) of protein was discovered [1]. SCIN infects a broad range of animal species, including horses, humans, pigs, which is evolved into strong adaptiveness through genome modification (such as by gene communications with external genetic segments aiming to host-invasion interactions). For the human S. aureus, a specific variant stream was found to block human complement system; for the horse S. aureus, the specific equine variant of SCIN was indicated to inhibit the horse complement system.

Accordingly, A specific Human monoclonal antibodies (humAbs), named as 6D4, was abstracted from B-cells screened randomly, which specifically binds the SCIN and C3 convertases as inhibitors against S. aureus[2].

In this article, it is further proposed that compared with S. aureus that evolves across host animal species with closer genetic distances, COVID-19 virus originates from the wild species with longer genetic distance to human, which is evolved into adaptation on human host by acquisition of human gene segments for self-modification of virus genome. This is one of the key factor to explain why COVID-19 is more epidemic than before.


2.The inhibition protein over a broader range of biological phyla.
The specificity of host–pathogen interactions in pathogenesis against melanin synthesized by the host cells of invertebrates, which is activated by prophenoloxidase pathway of metabolic process, is discussed [3]. Further more, there are totally six families of serine proteinase inhibitors, including Kazal, Kunitz, α-macroglobulin, Serpin and two recently reported families of low molecule weight [4], which functions in arthropod hemolymph immunology system to defense against a broad ranges of pathogens or parasites infections. Several families of protein protease inhibitors are classified into two classes according to the different functions played in the binding process: the active site inhibition protease families and a specific family of α2-macroglobulins[5]. The first class inhibitors directly bind and inactivate the active site of the pathogenic protease, whereas the second protein α2-macroglobulins bind protease of invasive pathogens by a unique molecular trap mechanism in which α2-macroglobulins converts the bound protease into a receptor-mediated endocytic system, subsequently degradation occurs in secondary lysosomes. The α2-macroglobulins are reported in a wide range of biological phyla, which is consequently considered as the expression of conserved chromosome arm in the 0.6 billion evolutionary process.   

In this article, it is further suggested that the functional group triggering the catalytic reaction of the same isozyme family is expressed by the conserved genomes in the evolutionary process, so the above protein protease families summarized also becomes the chemical species for isozyme development, which can be commonly used in other biological species.      




To be continued....   
















References
[1]De Jong NWM, Vrieling M, Garcia BL, Koop G, Brettmann M, Aerts PC, Ruyken M, van Strijp JAG, Holmes M, Harrison EM, Geisbrecht BV, Rooijakkers SHM. Identification of a staphylococcal complement inhibitor with broad host specificity in equid Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Biol Chem. 2018 Mar 23;293(12):4468-4477. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.000599. Epub 2018 Feb 5. PMID: 29414776; PMCID: PMC5868266.
[2]Hoekstra H, Romero Pastrana F, Bonarius HPJ, van Kessel KPM, Elsinga GS, Kooi N, Groen H, van Dijl JM, Buist G. A human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds and inhibits the staphylococcal complement inhibitor protein SCIN. Virulence. 2018 Jan 1;9(1):70-82. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2017.1294297. Epub 2017 May 8. PMID: 28277903; PMCID: PMC5955450.
[3].Lage Cerenius, Bok Luel Lee, Kenneth Söderhäll, The proPO-system: pros and cons for its role in invertebrate immunity,Trends in Immunology, Volume 29, Issue 6,2008,Pages 263-271,ISSN 1471-4906.
[4].Michael R. Kanost, Serine proteinase inhibitors in arthropod immunity,
Developmental & Comparative Immunology, Volume 23, Issues 4–5,1999,Pages 291-301,ISSN 0145-305X.
[5].Peter B. Armstrong, Proteases and protease inhibitors: a balance of activities in host–pathogen interaction, Immunobiology, Volume 211, Issue 4,
2006, Pages 263-281, ISSN 0171-2985.



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