hliu092 发表于 2021-1-3 17:21:56

Epidemiology/病理传播学

This is the article 2 in the theme 'Environmental Physiology/环境生理学' of Journal of Environment and Health Science.

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hliu092 发表于 2021-1-6 10:12:32

Article 2. Epidemiology: The Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution, Microbes and Electromagnetic Wave Pollution/病理传播学:环境空气重金属、微生物与电磁波污染

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.Review
1.The Heavy Metal Pollution
The pollution sources of heavy metal are mainly through three pathways: the aerosol, diet and water environment. This chapter focus on the atmospheric pathway of heavy metal pollution with the representative pollutants of lead and mercury.

1.1.The Pathology of Heavy Metal Toxicity
The toxic heavy metal associates with the pathology of all organs, with particularly attention to the kidney as the most sensitive organ to the toxicity of heavy metal. There are some identified mechanism of pathology in kidney caused by the toxic heavy metal pollution:
1.1.1.Alteration of permeability and transport function in cellular membrane
Heavy metal inactivates the membrane lipid, leading to the alteration of permeability and transport function in cellular membrane.
1.1.2.Impact on the enzyme and nuclein
In cell, the heavy metal react with organic molecules or the functional group of enzyme, which results in the exchange of essential metal ions or inactivation of enzymes. The heavy metal ions also combine the non-enzymatic protein and nucleic acid, inactivating the biological organs.
1.1.3.Distorting the immunological system
The heavy metals, as half antigens, react with proteins into complex antigens, distorting the immunological system of biological organs.
1.1.4.Secondary pathology
The secondary pathological characteristics associating the heavy metals mainly include methemoglobinemia, hematolysis, shock, anoxia and electrolyte disturbances.

1.2.Pathology of Lead
The main perniciousness of lead is the chronic interstitial nephritis, which has been testified physiologically by the evidence of excessive lead in the inclusion body of renal epithelial cell using animal test. The pathological characteristics of lead toxicity usually include Fanconi-de Toni syndrome, benign glycosuria, amino-aciduria, albuminuria, cylindruria, urine lead ascending and hypertension etc. Approximately 50% of patients of toxic lead are associated with pathological characteristics of hyperuricemia, arthrolithiasis, and osteosclerosis in bone X-ray (typical increase of texture in the end of long bone).

1.3.Pathology of Mercury
The physiological mechanism caused by mercury is that the mercury combines with sulfur hydrogen group of mitochondrial membrane protein, resulting in the decomposition and destruction of mitochondria and nuclei. The compounds of plasma mercury tightly combines with proteins, allowing only 1% of glomerulus to permeate. The accumulation of mercury intensively occurs in the proximal tubule of kidney, manifesting the formation of granule in epithelial cells or vacuolar degeneration with serious pathology as focal tubular rupture. The acute characteristics of pathology include the renal failure, urine dipstick for protein, cast epithelial, the increase of red-blood-cells, diabetes, acidaminuria, and mercury urine, as well as chronic characteristics of nephrosis syndrome.

2.The Airborne Microbial Pollution
Acute respiratory infection is divided into anemofrigid cold and anemopyretic cold by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) . The population density and microbial diversity of aerosol samples in oral cavity were compared between the heathy one and patients by Chen et al.,(2005). However, the patients are diagnosed as anemofrigid cold and anemopyretic cold by TCM separately, which are correspondingly compared independently as well. The background microbial ecosystem are sampled and analyzed in this research for the assessment of meteorological effects on the microbial communities. The conclusion of this research supports the theory of ‘alteration of eco-balance’ in microbial ecosystem revealed by the increase of microbial density and decrease of microbial diversity, which is considered as the causal factor of acute respiratory infection. However, the specific pathogenesis of each microbial specieshas not been characterized in this research, and the classification of microbial species is based on the morphological characters only. Particularly, the establishment of pathogens is performed as a microbial community rather than a population of single species in this research, which further supports the improvement of biological control pointed by this book author .

References:
. 唐银栋(1987)。重金属的结构与其环境污染和毒性的关系。《内蒙古医学院学报》。
第 9 卷,第 1 期。
许国章,樊军明(1995)。重金属中毒性肾脏病。《新医学》。
. 陈文慧, 袁嘉丽, 韩妮萍, 姚政, 张英凯, 赵鹏 (2005)。 春季时令病邪与空气微生物及呼吸道微生态相关性初步研究。《云南中医学院学报》。第 28 卷第 4 期。
.Liu Huan (2015). Review of Biological Control: The Population Biology of Microbial Ecosystem/种群生物学原理在微生物生态系统和生物控制技术中的应用研究(英文). Journal of Environmental & Health Science.
. 周延清, 张改娜与杨清香, 生物遗传标记与应用, 2008, 化学工业出版社.
. 余 敏 新生儿换血疗法的治疗及护理 2011 年第 9 卷第 9 期 《中华现代临床医学杂志》


2. Examination of Environmental Toxicity
Methods of examination of environmental toxicity in heavy metal pollution adhering to aerosol:

Step 1: two parallel samples of rats, as the receptors of heavy metal pollution, are exposed to two kinds of environmental conditions respectively for the same duration: one is adjacent to the transportation road where the main pollution source of heavy metal is diesel; the other is the factory in which the pollution source of heavy metal is the industrial emission. The height of rat samples should be located at the level of people’s breath zone. The rat’s total urine during two hours after exposure experiment is collected for analysis.

Step 2: The cumulative exposure dose of heavy metal pollution adhering to aerosolare monitored in both sites, and the test of mean heavy metal concentration in the urine after exposure experiment are correspondingly conducted for the analysis of correlation. The standards of monitoring the heavy metal pollution include: GB/T16157, HJ/T 373, and HJ/T48...etc.

Step 3. The ratio of mean heavy metal concentration in urine to the cumulative exposure dose is calculated, for the assessment of the difference in environmental toxicity between two different emission sources, which emit aerosols with different morphology. The mean heavy metal concentration in the urine after exposure experiment is compared with relevant standards of limit value to reveal the degree of health (The higher concentration, the more environmental toxicity).

Step 4. The total content of heavy metal in the urine after exposure experiment is also counted, which is divided by the cumulative exposure dose so that another ratio is worked out for the assessment of environmental toxicity (The higher ratio, the more environmental toxicity).

Step5. 8-hours exposure duration, 24-hours exposure duration and long-term exposure duration are chosen for the investigation of environmental toxicity in heavy metal at different durations.

Step 6. After multiple test, the mean ratio becomes a stable criterion to examine the effects of the environmental toxicity in heavy metal pollution.

Step 7. The mean heavy metal concentration in urine is also tested in people who are working in both sites as ‘clinical trial’, and the correlation between the cumulative exposure dose and mean heavy metal concentration in urine is analyzed. The mean heavy metal concentration in the urine after exposure experiment is compared with relevant standards of limit value to reveal the degree of health.


3. Environmental & Health Standards of Electromagnetic Wave/电磁波污染的环境与卫生标准

As discussed in this journal, the electromagnetic wave with multiple frequencies (more than 3 frequencies) leads to altered or distortive bio-signals which is detrimental to health. Consequently, this appendix presents novel method to examine the environmental standards of electromagnetic wave for environmental monitoring and assessment:

Step 1. Parallel samples of rats with the same genetic strain are cultivated in Lab as the receptors of electromagnetic wave, and the rhythm of heart is measured as the indicator of health degree;

Step 2. Different frequencies of electromagnetic wave, which can be commonly found in daily life, are simulated in Lab, and more than three emittors of electromagnetic wave works concurrently; Different intensities of each frequency are simulated in Lab as well;

Step 3. The limitations of environmental standards for electromagnetic wave, in terms of limitations on both frequency and intensity, are tested and decided according to the heart rhythm of rat samples.

This is the revised materials in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” Published in 2016. The ‘chapter’ content mentioned in this article is in previous book. Revised on 05/01/2021.
References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/。

hliu092 发表于 2021-1-3 17:23:03

Article 2. Epidemiology: The Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution, Microbes and Electromagnetic Wave Pollution/病理传播学:环境空气重金属、微生物与电磁波污染

Author: Liu Huan, MSc (First Class Honours), The University of Auckland.

1.Review
1.The Heavy Metal Pollution
The pollution sources of heavy metal are mainly through three pathways: the aerosol, diet and water environment. This chapter focus on the atmospheric pathway of heavy metal pollution with the representative pollutants of lead and mercury.

1.1.The Pathology of Heavy Metal Toxicity
The toxic heavy metal associates with the pathology of all organs, with particularly attention to the kidney as the most sensitive organ to the toxicity of heavy metal. There are some identified mechanism of pathology in kidney caused by the toxic heavy metal pollution:
1.1.1.Alteration of permeability and transport function in cellular membrane
Heavy metal inactivates the membrane lipid, leading to the alteration of permeability and transport function in cellular membrane.
1.1.2.Impact on the enzyme and nuclein
In cell, the heavy metal react with organic molecules or the functional group of enzyme, which results in the exchange of essential metal ions or inactivation of enzymes. The heavy metal ions also combine the non-enzymatic protein and nucleic acid, inactivating the biological organs.
1.1.3.Distorting the immunological system
The heavy metals, as half antigens, react with proteins into complex antigens, distorting the immunological system of biological organs.
1.1.4.Secondary pathology
The secondary pathological characteristics associating the heavy metals mainly include methemoglobinemia, hematolysis, shock, anoxia and electrolyte disturbances.

1.2.Pathology of Lead
The main perniciousness of lead is the chronic interstitial nephritis, which has been testified physiologically by the evidence of excessive lead in the inclusion body of renal epithelial cell using animal test. The pathological characteristics of lead toxicity usually include Fanconi-de Toni syndrome, benign glycosuria, amino-aciduria, albuminuria, cylindruria, urine lead ascending and hypertension etc. Approximately 50% of patients of toxic lead are associated with pathological characteristics of hyperuricemia, arthrolithiasis, and osteosclerosis in bone X-ray (typical increase of texture in the end of long bone).

1.3.Pathology of Mercury
The physiological mechanism caused by mercury is that the mercury combines with sulfur hydrogen group of mitochondrial membrane protein, resulting in the decomposition and destruction of mitochondria and nuclei. The compounds of plasma mercury tightly combines with proteins, allowing only 1% of glomerulus to permeate. The accumulation of mercury intensively occurs in the proximal tubule of kidney, manifesting the formation of granule in epithelial cells or vacuolar degeneration with serious pathology as focal tubular rupture. The acute characteristics of pathology include the renal failure, urine dipstick for protein, cast epithelial, the increase of red-blood-cells, diabetes, acidaminuria, and mercury urine, as well as chronic characteristics of nephrosis syndrome.

2.The Airborne Microbial Pollution
Acute respiratory infection is divided into anemofrigid cold and anemopyretic cold by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) . The population density and microbial diversity of aerosol samples in oral cavity were compared between the heathy one and patients by Chen et al.,(2005). However, the patients are diagnosed as anemofrigid cold and anemopyretic cold by TCM separately, which are correspondingly compared independently as well. The background microbial ecosystem are sampled and analyzed in this research for the assessment of meteorological effects on the microbial communities. The conclusion of this research supports the theory of ‘alteration of eco-balance’ in microbial ecosystem revealed by the increase of microbial density and decrease of microbial diversity, which is considered as the causal factor of acute respiratory infection. However, the specific pathogenesis of each microbial specieshas not been characterized in this research, and the classification of microbial species is based on the morphological characters only. Particularly, the establishment of pathogens is performed as a microbial community rather than a population of single species in this research, which further supports the improvement of biological control pointed by this book author .

References:
. 唐银栋(1987)。重金属的结构与其环境污染和毒性的关系。《内蒙古医学院学报》。
第 9 卷,第 1 期。
许国章,樊军明(1995)。重金属中毒性肾脏病。《新医学》。
. 陈文慧, 袁嘉丽, 韩妮萍, 姚政, 张英凯, 赵鹏 (2005)。 春季时令病邪与空气微生物及呼吸道微生态相关性初步研究。《云南中医学院学报》。第 28 卷第 4 期。
.Liu Huan (2015). Review of Biological Control: The Population Biology of Microbial Ecosystem/种群生物学原理在微生物生态系统和生物控制技术中的应用研究(英文). Journal of Environmental & Health Science.
. 周延清, 张改娜与杨清香, 生物遗传标记与应用, 2008, 化学工业出版社.
. 余 敏 新生儿换血疗法的治疗及护理 2011 年第 9 卷第 9 期 《中华现代临床医学杂志》


2. Examination of Environmental Toxicity
Methods of examination of environmental toxicity in heavy metal pollution adhering to aerosol:

Step 1: two parallel samples of rats, as the receptors of heavy metal pollution, are exposed to two kinds of environmental conditions respectively for the same duration: one is adjacent to the transportation road where the main pollution source of heavy metal is diesel; the other is the factory in which the pollution source of heavy metal is the industrial emission. The height of rat samples should be located at the level of people’s breath zone. The rat’s total urine during two hours after exposure experiment is collected for analysis.

Step 2: The cumulative exposure dose of heavy metal pollution adhering to aerosolare monitored in both sites, and the test of mean heavy metal concentration in the urine after exposure experiment are correspondingly conducted for the analysis of correlation. The standards of monitoring the heavy metal pollution include: GB/T16157, HJ/T 373, and HJ/T48...etc.

Step 3. The ratio of mean heavy metal concentration in urine to the cumulative exposure dose is calculated, for the assessment of the difference in environmental toxicity between two different emission sources, which emit aerosols with different morphology. The mean heavy metal concentration in the urine after exposure experiment is compared with relevant standards of limit value to reveal the degree of health (The higher concentration, the more environmental toxicity).

Step 4. The total content of heavy metal in the urine after exposure experiment is also counted, which is divided by the cumulative exposure dose so that another ratio is worked out for the assessment of environmental toxicity (The higher ratio, the more environmental toxicity).

Step5. 8-hours exposure duration, 24-hours exposure duration and long-term exposure duration are chosen for the investigation of environmental toxicity in heavy metal at different durations.

Step 6. After multiple test, the mean ratio becomes a stable criterion to examine the effects of the environmental toxicity in heavy metal pollution.

Step 7. The mean heavy metal concentration in urine is also tested in people who are working in both sites as ‘clinical trial’, and the correlation between the cumulative exposure dose and mean heavy metal concentration in urine is analyzed. The mean heavy metal concentration in the urine after exposure experiment is compared with relevant standards of limit value to reveal the degree of health.


3. Environmental & Health Standards of Electromagnetic Wave/电磁波污染的环境与卫生标准

As discussed in this journal, the electromagnetic wave with multiple frequencies (more than 3 frequencies) leads to altered or distortive bio-signals which is detrimental to health. Consequently, this appendix presents novel method to examine the environmental standards of electromagnetic wave for environmental monitoring and assessment:

Step 1. Parallel samples of rats with the same genetic strain are cultivated in Lab as the receptors of electromagnetic wave, and the rhythm of heart is measured as the indicator of health degree;

Step 2. Different frequencies of electromagnetic wave, which can be commonly found in daily life, are simulated in Lab, and more than three emittors of electromagnetic wave works concurrently; Different intensities of each frequency are simulated in Lab as well;

Step 3. The limitations of environmental standards for electromagnetic wave, in terms of limitations on both frequency and intensity, are tested and decided according to the heart rhythm of rat samples.

The above PDF version is the original materials formally published in book.




This is the revised materials in book “Proceedings for Degree of Postgraduate Diploma in Environmental Science (3rd Edition).” published in 2016. Revised on 28/12/2020.

References:
All the science terms in English of this journal source from Wikipedia:
https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/;
本文所有中文科学专业术语引用自百度百科 https://baike.baidu.com/。
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